Budget 2016: Will it meet people’s aspirations? (Comment: Special to IANS)

Ever since then finance minister Shan Mukhan Chitty presented India’s first

budget in 1947, the event has been eagerly awaited as the first big-ticket

political event of the year. Consequently it should come as no surprise that

even a fortnight after Arun Jaitley presented the budget for 2016-17,

commentaries continue as to whether this was finally the long-awaited budget

or whether it was devoid of the much-needed big bang vision.

This oscillation between applause and disappointment is equally

understandable, as it reflects perceptions of how realistic the government’s

aspirations are and whether it would achieve its stated objectives. This is

because a budget is essentially a statement by the government of what its

priorities are for the year. The budget document is, in other words, an

allocation of funds and the sectors for which allocations have been made.

Allocations are not, however, a sanction for expenditure.

Expenditure is incurred on the basis of prescribed administrative and

financial procedures that need to pass audit scrutiny, failing which it

becomes an audit objection and in the worse-case scenario, feature in the

Comptroller and Auditor General’s report, which is presented to parliament.

To that extent, actual expenditure incurred usually falls below allocations

because of reticence in giving approvals.

Fear of reprisals after change of government or investigations by vigilance

on the basis of complaints of misappropriation of funds can be a

significantly demotivating factor for bureaucrats in approving proposals.

Delays become the norm. Consequently, at the Revised Estimates stage,

progressive expenditure statements and the ability to spend determine fund

allocations and tend to be substantially lower than the Budget Estimates.

This is the real challenge that governments face. In short, will the central

government spending for the financial year utilize the allocations or will

funds lapse, as has been the case on innumerable occasions in the past with

successive governments? Utilization and thus, implementation will be the

litmus test of the government’s resolve in matching its aspirations with

achievement. Shortfall will attract criticism that the government falsely

raised expectations.

To that extent, all budgets face the critical challenge of implementation.

Consider some allocations in the 2016 budget, for instance. Under the

Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Program [AIBP], Jaitley said that there were

89 pending projects and their completion would require Rs.17,000 crore next

year and Rs.86,500 crore in the next five years. In parliament, he conveyed

the government’s commitment in ensuring 23 projects would be completed

before the end of the financial year.

It bears recalling that the majority of these projects have been languishing

for years. What miracle wand will now see fast-tracking and thus,

completion? Indeed, the genuine fear is that incurring expenditure would be

confused with project completion when in reality it would only push open the

door to corruption even wider. Ensuring that the allocations go to the

intended beneficiaries within the stipulated time frame will be the biggest

challenge the central government would face.

Similarly, Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s pledge to double the income of

farmers by 2022 was rejected by his predecessor, Manmohan Singh, as being

an impossible dreamT despite it being a big idea.

Indeed, Modi himself indicated that the goal would be achieved only if the

state governments gave priority to agriculture. As the history of India’s

centre-state relations has repeatedly demonstrated, this is an uneasy

relationship where state governments that are in opposition to the central

government and rarely sing the same tune. Consequently, the sole big idea

might fall by the wayside, as its success is entirely dependent on the

proactive manner in which state governments take interest in the rural

sector and in agriculture.

Consider the ease of doing business. At a talk recently delivered at the

Mumbai campus of the SP Jain School of Global Management, the response of

Mark Thirwell, Chief Economist with Austrade, in response to a query on how

India was perceived by Australian companies, is worth recalling.

He said when Australian companies were asked to identify the top five

exciting destinations in the world for investment, India would invariably

feature. At the same time, if Australian companies operating abroad were

asked which they felt were the top five most difficult places to do

business, India would invariably feature! In other words, India represents a

clear mismatch between expectation and delivery. The importance of

addressing how important it is to improve conditions for doing business in

India cannot be over-emphasized.

The government has announced the ease of doing business as among its top

priorities. For this, a number of amendments to the Companies Act are

required but can only be achieved with the approval of parliament.

Experience suggests that this is not likely to be an easy task given the

manner in which parliamentary proceedings have been stalled over the past

several months and the passage of important bills, especially GST. It is,

however, good news that the opposition has agreed to the passage of some of

the bills.

The government’s commitment on fiscal consolidation is also excellent news.

All this impacts the way in which India is perceived by foreign investors.

Two important challenges confront all governments: first, the ability to

spend allocations and ensure that the funds reach the intended beneficiaries

and second, to see the budgetary exercise as being in conjunction with a

series of other enabling executive actions.

For transformative change to take place in the Indian economy, tough

economic reforms are required. A pro-poor budget does not work without an

economic liberalization programme that attracts domestic and foreign

investment coupled with expenditure in the social sector.

Simultaneously, the government needs to visibly demonstrate political will

in tackling corruption at all levels, especially the connivance between

local politicians, law enforcers, contractors and the multiple gatekeepers

who thrive on speed money. Unless corruption is addressed, investors would

not back the India story.

A dream budget is one that can be implemented. At the end of the day, a

budget and its implementation need to be seen as setting the tone for

inclusive growth in a country where the Mars mission and farmer suicides are

a grim reality and take place simultaneously. Unless this is a collective

end-objective, India will again represent the inability to deliver on

aspirations. Yet again, the people would have lost.

(13.03.2016 Amit Dasgupta, a former diplomat, heads the Mumbai campus of the

SP Jain School of Global Management. The views expressed are personal.

He can be reached at editor@spsindia.in)

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