The National Gross Expenditure on Research and Development (GERD) in Science and Technology sector during the past three years was pegged at 0.7 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the Parliament was told on Wednesday.
The corresponding figures for some developed and developing countries include Israel (4.9), South Korea (4.5), Japan (3.3), Germany (3.1), the US (2.8), France (2.2), China (2.1), the UK (1.7), Canada (1.5), Brazil (1.2), Russia (1.0) and South Africa (0.8), Science and Technology Minister Jitendra Singh told the Lok Sabha in a written reply.
As per the latest available R&D statistics, the national GERD in S&T sector during the years 2015-16 to 2017-18 was Rs 95,452.44 crore, Rs 103,099.26 crore and Rs 113,825.03 crore respectively. It is estimated to be of the order of Rs 123,847.71 crore for the year 2018-19.
The Minister said the government has taken various initiatives to increase allocation in the field of science and technology such as successive increase in plan allocations for scientific departments, setting up of new institutions for science education and research, creation of Centres of Excellence and facilities in emerging and frontline areas of S&T in academic and national institutions among several other initiatives.
The audit on research outcomes in various scientific departments and research organisations is carried out annually. In addition, the compliance audit and performance audit are being conducted at periodic intervals. Various scientific research schemes are also audited through a third party audit mechanism at mid-term and five yearly periods, he added.
Singh also said the government has encountered the problem of plagiarism in research and a Regulation on “Promotion of Academic Integrity and Prevention of Plagiarism in Higher Education Institutions, 2018” has been brought out by University Grants Commission (UGC) to address this issue.
In addition, various scientific research organisations have constituted Ethics Committees to check plagiarism, he added.